Achondrite with an almost chondritic composition with age similar to the primordial chondrites. These should be better classified as "metachondrites"., Modifying term used to describe meteorites that are mineralogically and/or chemically unique and defy classification into the group or sub-group they most closely resemble. Some examples include Ungrouped Achondrite (achondrite-ung), Ungrouped Chondrite (chondrite-ung), Ungrouped Iron (iron-ung), and Ungrouped Carbonaceous (C-ung). Click on Term to Read More: carbonaceous chondrite-related (CR , CR-like , CR-an , Primitive An achondrite is a type of stony meteorite whose precursor was of chondritic origin and experienced metamorphic and igneous processes. They have a planetary or differentiated asteroidal origin where the chondritic parent body reached a sufficient size that through heating due to radioactive decay of 26Al (aluminum isotope) and gravitational Click on Term to Read More in MetBull 105 )
Found: February 14, 2000, Coordinates: 20° 45′ 48′ N. 10° 26′ 30′ E.
Twenty-six stones totaling ~110 kg, the two largest weighing ~30 kg, were found by Bernard Dejonghein in the Ténéré region of north-central Niger; all are considered to be paired. This olivine-rich Work in progress. A solid natural object reaching a planet’s surface from interplanetary space. Solid portion of a meteoroid that survives its fall to Earth, or some other body. Meteorites are classified as stony meteorites, iron meteorites, and stony-iron meteorites. These groups are further divided according to their mineralogy and Click on Term to Read More was classified at the Muséum National d’Histoire Naturelle in France as the first thermally metamorphosed Class named for the Renazzo meteorite that fell in Italy in 1824, are similar to CMs in that they contain hydrous silicates, traces of water, and magnetite. The main difference is that CRs contain Ni-Fe metal and Fe sulfide that occurs in the black matrix and in the large chondrules Click on Term to Read More. A separate ~3.6 kg stone found independently in the same vicinity as Tafassasset was provisionally named Te-1 (previous synonym Grein 004), and it was independently analyzed at the Max-Planck-Institut für Chemie in Germany. A bulk compositional analysis of Te-1 found that it differs slightly from Tafassasset in its texture and in certain elemental abundances, but its overall similarity in texture (recrystallized with 120° triple junctions) and elemental composition to Tafassasset makes their pairing obvious. The differences observed suggest this Meteorite seen to fall. Such meteorites are usually collected soon after falling and are not affected by terrestrial weathering (Weathering = 0). Beginning in 2014 (date needs confirmation), the NomComm adopted the use of the terms "probable fall" and "confirmed fall" to provide better insight into the meteorite's history. If Click on Term to Read More was composed of a heterogeneous assemblage. The meteorite NWA 5131 was found to be very similar geochemically and petrologically to Tafassasset.
Although Tafassasset is only slightly weathered to a grade of W0/1, the majority of the Melted exterior of a meteorite that forms when it passes through Earth’s atmosphere. Friction with the air will raise a meteorite’s surface temperature upwards of 4800 K (8180 °F) and will melt (ablate) the surface minerals and flow backwards over the surface as shown in the Lafayette meteorite photograph below. Click on Term to Read More has been extensively sand-blasted away. Relict metal-bearing Roughly spherical aggregate of coarse crystals formed from the rapid cooling and solidification of a melt at ~1400 ° C. Large numbers of chondrules are found in all chondrites except for the CI group of carbonaceous chondrites. Chondrules are typically 0.5-2 mm in diameter and are usually composed of olivine Click on Term to Read More and Roughly spherical aggregate of coarse crystals formed from the rapid cooling and solidification of a melt at ~1400 ° C. Large numbers of chondrules are found in all chondrites except for the CI group of carbonaceous chondrites. Chondrules are typically 0.5-2 mm in diameter and are usually composed of olivine Click on Term to Read More rims in Tafassasset were reported by the French research team. This evidence led some to classify the meteorite as CR7 or Meta-CR. However, these features were determined by Breton et al. (2015) to be pockets of molten material containing refractory Group of silicate minerals, (Mg,Fe)2SiO4, with the compositional endpoints of forsterite (Mg2SiO4) and fayalite (Fe2SiO4). Olivine is commonly found in all chondrites within both the matrix and chondrules, achondrites including most primitive achondrites and some evolved achondrites, in pallasites as large yellow-green crystals (brown when terrestrialized), in the silicate portion Click on Term to Read More and The property of liquids that are mutually insoluble (won't mix together) such as oil and water or metallic and silicate melts. Click on Term to Read More Element that readily forms cations and has metallic bonds; sometimes said to be similar to a cation in a cloud of electrons. The metals are one of the three groups of elements as distinguished by their ionization and bonding properties, along with the metalloids and nonmetals. A diagonal line drawn Click on Term to Read More, which upon cooling, resemble chondrule textures.
More recent research results (see below) have determined that the Tafassasset parent asteroid accreted very early, prior to the onset of chondrule formation in the Carbonaceous chondrites represent the most primitive rock samples of our solar system. This rare (less than 5% of all meteorite falls) class of meteorites are a time capsule from the earliest days in the formation of our solar system. They are divided into the following compositional groups that, other than Click on Term to Read More (CC) reservoir beyond Jupiter.
Also referred to as the plagioclase feldspar series. Plagioclase is a common rock-forming series of feldspar minerals containing a continuous solid solution of calcium and sodium: (Na1-x,Cax)(Alx+1,Si1-x)Si2O8 where x = 0 to 1. The Ca-rich end-member is called anorthite (pure anorthite has formula: CaAl2Si2O8) and the Na-rich end-member is albite Click on Term to Read More, Brownish-black oxide of chromium and iron (Cr-Fe oxide), Cr2FeO4, found in many meteorite groups. Click on Term to Read More, and phosphates present in the Fine grained primary and silicate-rich material in chondrites that surrounds chondrules, refractory inclusions (like CAIs), breccia clasts and other constituents. Click on Term to Read More of Tafassasset have been attributed to metamorphism of original fine-grained matrix material. By contrast, similar Inorganic substance that is (1) naturally occurring (but does not have a biologic or man-made origin) and formed by physical (not biological) forces with a (2) defined chemical composition of limited variation, has a (3) distinctive set of of physical properties including being a solid, and has a (4) homogeneous Click on Term to Read More phases are found in areas that define possible relict chondrules, described as poikiloblastic aggregates by some, which have retained the textures of an earlier, pre-metamorphic stage. The abundant small Brass colored non-magnetic Fe sulfide, FeS, found in a variety of meteorites. grains present in the recrystallized olivine–A class of silicate (SiO3) minerals that form a solid solution between iron and magnesium and can contain up to 50% calcium. Pyroxenes are important rock forming minerals and critical to understanding igneous processes. For more detailed information, please read the Pyroxene Group article found in the Meteoritics & Classification Click on Term to Read More matrix in Tafassasset are similar to those found in CR Chondrites are the most common meteorites accounting for ~84% of falls. Chondrites are comprised mostly of Fe- and Mg-bearing silicate minerals (found in both chondrules and fine grained matrix), reduced Fe/Ni metal (found in various states like large blebs, small grains and/or even chondrule rims), and various refractory inclusions (such Click on Term to Read More. On an oxygen three-isotope plot, Tafassasset falls within the CR field and away from the majority of brachinites. Still, the plagioclase composition and other The most abundant group of minerals in Earth's crust, the structure of silicates are dominated by the silica tetrahedron, SiO44-, with metal ions occurring between tetrahedra). The mesodesmic bonds of the silicon tetrahedron allow extensive polymerization and silicates are classified according to the amount of linking that occurs between the abundances in Tafassasset are most similar to those of brachinites.
Tafassasset has similar O- and Cr-isotopic compositions to the CR chondrites, and is also similar with respect to its high abundance of siderophile elements, including its high FeNi-metal content of 8–10 vol% compared to ~7.4 vol% in CR chondrites (Nehru et al., 2010). However, in their Literally, "iron-loving" element that tends to be concentrated in Fe-Ni metal rather than in silicate; these are Fe, Co, Ni, Mo, Re, Au, and PGE. These elements are relatively common in undifferentiated meteorites, and, in differentiated asteroids and planets, are found in the metal-rich cores and, consequently, extremely rare on study emphasising Hf–W systematics, Archer et al. (2019) contend that the near-zero ε183W values for metal in Tafassasset (–0.06 [±0.17] to 0.02 [±0.2]; Breton et al., 2015) distinguish it from the positive ε183W values for metal in CR chondrites (~0.4 to ~0.6; Archer et al., 2018; Budde et al., 2018, diagram), making a genetic relationship (common The body from which a meteorite or meteoroid was derived prior to its ejection. Some parent bodies were destroyed early in the formation of our Solar System, while others like the asteroid 4-Vesta and Mars are still observable today. Click on Term to Read More) doubtful.
Similar to several CR6 meteorites, Tafassasset exhibits a fractionated Substance composed of atoms, each of which has the same atomic number (Z) and chemical properties. The chemical properties of an element are determined by the arrangement of the electrons in the various shells (specified by their quantum number) that surround the nucleus. In a neutral atom, the number of Click on Term to Read More signature uncharacteristic for the CR group, including a depletion in refractory lithophile elements, an extremely low Zn concentration, and Al/Mg and Mn/Mg ratios that plot near more evolved achondrites. This Concentration or separation of one mineral, element, or isotope from an initially homogeneous system. Fractionation can occur as a mass-dependent or mass-independent process. Click on Term to Read More is consistent with an early stage of An igneous process whereby rocks melt and the resulting magma is comprised of the remaining partially melted rock (sometimes called restite) and a liquid whose composition differs from the original rock. Partial melting occurs because nearly all rocks are made up of different minerals, each of which has a different melting Click on Term to Read More involving the mobilization of melts incorporating Si, P, and S, and/or perhaps a late stage of metasomatism. Classification of Tafassasset as an ungrouped primitive achondrite was suggested by the German research team (Zipfel et al., 2002) as the most plausible classification; however, the texturally evolved nature of this meteorite is not consistent with a primitive designation.
A further advancement of metamorphism along a continuum that includes the CR6 chondrites NWA 7317 (and pairings), NWA 3100, and NWA 2994 (and pairings) was invoked by Bunch et al (2008) to explain the recrystallized poikiloblastic texture in Tafassasset, and therefore the term Term used to describe a metamorphosed chondrite. Also referred to as a type 7 chondrite. Metachondrites are texturally evolved rocks derived from chondritic precursors and some have been classified as primitive achondrites. Click on Term to Read More was thought to be most appropriate for this meteorite. They also argued that the similarity in O-isotopic compositions that is observed among the non-metamorphosed CR chondrites, the metamorphosed CR6 chondrites, and Tafassasset, compared to the igneous achondrite NWA 011 (and pairings), is consistent with their derivation from a common large parent body, one which experienced internal partial melting while retaining a chondritic Mixture of unconsolidated rocky fragments, soil, dust and other fine granular particles blanketing the surface of a body lacking an atmosphere. Regolith is the product of "gardening" by repeated meteorite impacts, and thermal processes (such as repeated heating and cooling cycles). Click on Term to Read More.
Tafassasset is a recrystallized meteorite that is petrographically consistent with a low-degree partial melt with a retained metal component that was derived from Renazzo-like precursor source material. It subsequently experienced equilibration processes through an extended period of thermal metamorphism. Tafassasset is considered to be closely related to the brachinites and other FeO-rich primitive achondrites, and the meteorite has been characterized by Nehru et al. (2010) as an unusual brachinite derived from a CR-like precursor body through partial A process by which a generally homogeneous chondritic body containing mostly metal, silicates and sulfides will melt and form distinct (differentiated) layers of different densities. When the melting process continues for a long enough period of time, the once chondritic body will re-partition into layers of different composition including Click on Term to Read More. A Fa vs. Fs plot demonstrates this genetic relationship, as well as a relationship with the more primitive anomalous achondrites Divnoe and RBT 04239 (Gardner et al., 2007). However, a genetic relationship between Tafassasset and the CR group could be excluded based on differences in elemental compositions, Element occurring in the right-most column of the periodic table; also called "inert" gases. In these gases, the outer electron shell is completely filled, making them very unreactive. Click on Term to Read More ratios, and solar gas abundances. The CRE age of Tafassasset is also much higher (76.1 ±15.2 m.y.) than that of any CR Chondrites are the most common meteorites accounting for ~84% of falls. Chondrites are comprised mostly of Fe- and Mg-bearing silicate minerals (found in both chondrules and fine grained matrix), reduced Fe/Ni metal (found in various states like large blebs, small grains and/or even chondrule rims), and various refractory inclusions (such Click on Term to Read More (<10 m.y.). Still, it has been suggested by some investigators that all of the differences between Tafassasset and CR chondrites may be the result of an increased degree of metamorphism and/or metasomatism experienced by Tafassasset.
A study in which Tafassasset was compared with the brachinites was undertaken by Nehru et al. (2003). They determined that the texture, modal abundances, and mineral compositions of Tafassasset were very similar to Brachina, although differences were found to exist for Tafassasset with respect to its equilibration temperature, O-isotopic composition, and high abundance of metal. In a similar comparison made by Patzer et al. (2003), it was found that the level of radiogenic 129Xe measured in Tafassasset is similar to that of some brachinites. They also found that the trapped 132Xe component of Tafassasset was lower than that of CR chondrites, and that the 36Ar/132Xe ratio is at least 10× lower than it is in CR chondrites.
As with brachinites, Tafassasset was determined to have an ancient Pb–Pb age of ~4.563 b.y. (Göpel et al., 2009, 2015). It was also determined that its Cr systematics are the same as those for Renazzo, and that its 54Cr excess is the first such occurrence in a carbonaceous achondrite (Göpel and Birck, 2010). The carbonaceous achondrites NWA 011/2976, NWA 6704/6693, and NWA 2994/6901 have since been determined to have similar positive ε54Cr and ε50Ti values (Sanborn et al., 2018). In a study of the Mn–Cr systematics for Tafassasset, Göpel et al. (2015) ascertained an absolute age of 4.56351 (+0.00025/–0.00026) b.y. anchored to the D’Orbigny Type of evolved achondrite meteorite that represent some of the earliest stages of asteroidal differentiation and magmatism in our solar system. Angrites are named for the Angra dos Reis meteorite, which fell in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, in early 1869. They are basaltic (mafic) rocks, often containing porous areas, and Click on Term to Read More. Based on Al–Mg systematics, Dunlap et al. (2015) calculated an upper limit of <4.5677 b.y. ago for the timing of Al/Mg fractionation during differentiation on the Tafassasset parent body.
In their study, Breton et al. (2015) ascertained a ‘most reliable’ metal phase Hf–W age for Tafassasset of 2.9 (±0.9) m.y. after Sub-millimeter to centimeter-sized amorphous objects found typically in carbonaceous chondrites and ranging in color from white to greyish white and even light pink. CAIs have occasionally been found in ordinary chondrites, such as the L3.00 chondrite, NWA 8276 (Sara Russell, 2016). CAIs are also known as refractory inclusions since they Click on Term to Read More, corresponding to the timing of metal-silicate segregation; this corresponds to an absolute age of 4.5644 b.y. By comparison, the Hf–W age of CR chondrites was determined by Budde et al. (2018) to be somewhat younger at 3.63 (±0.62) m.y. after CAIs. It is also noteworthy that chondrule formation for CR chondrites was also calculated employing Al–Mg and Pb–Pb chronometry by Schrader et al. (2017) and Amelin et al. (2002), respectively. Their studies provided corrected ages of 3.75 (±0.24) and 3.66 (±0.63) m.y. after CAIs, respectively. Moreover, a temporally similar Accumulation of smaller objects into progressively larger bodies in the solar nebula leading to the eventual formation of asteroids, planetesimals and planets. The earliest accretion of the smallest particles was due to Van der Waals and electromagnetic forces. Further accretion continued by relatively low-velocity collisions of smaller bodies in the Click on Term to Read More age of 3.5 (±0.5) m.y. after CAIs was determined for CR chondrites by Sugiura and Fujiya (2014). These dates are inconsistent with a common parent body for CR chondrites and Tafassasset.
In a petrographic analysis and O-isotope study conducted by Gardner-Vandy et al. (2012), it was found that samples of Tafassasset have O-isotopic ratios that plot within the CR-chondrite field, and that it was equilibrated at an Used to express the idealized partial pressure of a gas, in this case oxygen, in a nonideal mixture. Oxygen fugacity (ƒO2) is a measure of the partial pressure of gaseous oxygen that is available to react in a particular environment (e.g. protoplanetary disk, Earth's magma, an asteroid's regolith, etc.) and Click on Term to Read More of ~IW–1. They determined that this meteorite experienced a low degree of partial melting on a small parent body without reaching isotopic homogeneity. Overall, Tafassasset was found to be most similar to the ungrouped achondrites LEW 88763 and Divnoe, as well as to the brachinites. The study concluded that Tafassasset is not consistent with partial melting of CR chondrites, although each meteorite appears to have formed within the same Element that makes up 20.95 vol. % of the Earth's atmosphere at ground level, 89 wt. % of seawater and 46.6 wt. % (94 vol. %) of Earth's crust. It appears to be the third most abundant element in the universe (after H and He), but has an abundance only Click on Term to Read More reservoir. In their comprehensive study of Tafassasset, Breton et al. (2015) used thermal modeling to derive a size for the Tafassasset parent body of 30–50 km in diameter, an early timing of accretion at 0.8–1.2 m.y. after CAIs, a partial melting degree of 20–25% due to radiogenic 26Al, and a formation depth for the Tafassasset lithology of 7.3–7.7 km. They also inferred that this relatively small asteroid experienced a high cooling rate of ~300–400 K/m.y. near the closure temperature for the Hf–W chronometer.
In a contrary scenario presented by Nehru et al. (2012, 2014), Tafassasset (and LEW 88763) may represent the residua of a low-degree partial melting event that occurred at some depth within a late-accreted chondritic veneer on a large (~400 km diameter) CR-like differentiated parent body. Subsequent impact excavation of the Outermost layer of a differentiated planet, asteroid or moon, usually consisting of silicate rock and extending no more than 10s of km from the surface. The term is also applied to icy bodies, in which case it is composed of ices, frozen gases, and accumulated meteoritic material. On Earth, the Click on Term to Read More would have exposed the underlying Tafassasset and brachinite lithologies. For more information pertaining to the latter scenario, see the LPSC abstract ‘Primitive’ and igneous achondrites related to the large and differentiated CR parent body by Bunch et al. (2005), and the MetSoc abstract Tafassasset and Primitive Achondrites: Records of Planetary Differentiation by Nehru et al. (2014).
Efforts to better resolve the relationship that exists between Tafassasset and other anomalous meteorites continues. As provided by Sanborn et al. (2014), a coupled Δ17O vs. ε54Cr diagram is one of the best diagnostic tools for determining genetic relationships between meteorites. Moreover, Sanborn et al. (2015) demonstrated that ε54Cr values are not affected by aqueous alteration. The diagrams below include Tafassasset, and it is apparent that it plots within the CR chondrite field. The specimen of Tafassasset pictured above is a 4.45 g partial slice with an edge of preserved Process in which two lighter atomic nuclei combine to form a heavier atomic nucleus. Very high temperatures are normally required in order for atomic nuclei to collide with sufficient energy to overcome the Coulomb barrier (their mutual electrostatic repulsions). Fusion that occurs under high-temperature conditions is called thermonuclear fusion. Fusion Click on Term to Read More crust.
Diagram credit: Sanborn et al., 45th LPSC, #2032 (2014)
Diagrams credit: Sanborn et al., GCA, vol. 245, pp. 577–596 (2019)
‘Carbonaceous Achondrites Northwest Africa 6704/6693: Milestones for Early The Sun and set of objects orbiting around it including planets and their moons and rings, asteroids, comets, and meteoroids. Chronology and Genealogy’