DiogeniteDiogenites belong to the evolved achondrite HED group that also includes howardites and eucrites. They are named after the Greek philosopher Diogenes of Apollonia, of the 5th century BCE, who was the first to suggest that meteorites come from outer space (a realization forgotten for over 2,000 years). They are, anomalous OrthopyroxeniteA rock composed primarily of orthopyroxene. Non-terrestrial orthopyoxenites include diogenites and a single martian meteorite, ALH 84001, that was found in the Allan Hills region of Antarctica in 1984. ALH 84001 is a cumulate rock consisting of 97% coarse-grained, Mg-rich orthopyroxene, with small amounts of plagioclase, chromite, and carbonate. It (≥90 vol% orthopyroxeneOrthorhombic, low-Ca pyroxene common in chondrites. Its compositional range runs from all Mg-rich enstatite, MgSiO3 to Fe-rich ferrosilite, FeSiO3. These end-members form an almost complete solid solution where Mg2+ substitutes for Fe2+ up to about 90 mol. % and Ca substitutes no more than ~5 mol. % (higher Ca2+ contents occur)
Found October 2000 18° 43.525′ N., 54° 43.829′ E.
A single lightly weathered (W1) stone, weighing 156 g, was found in the desert of Oman by a German team. It was classified by Dr. J. Otto at the Institut für Mineralogie, Universität Freiburg, as one of the most highly shocked diogenitesDiogenites belong to the evolved achondrite HED group that also includes howardites and eucrites. They are named after the Greek philosopher Diogenes of Apollonia, of the 5th century BCE, who was the first to suggest that meteorites come from outer space (a realization forgotten for over 2,000 years). They are yet discovered, with a shock stageA petrographic assessment, using features observed in minerals grains, of the degree to which a meteorite has undergone shock metamorphism. The highest stage observed in 25% of the indicator grains is used to determine the stage. Also called "shock level". of S4. This brecciaWork in Progress ... A rock that is a mechanical mixture of different minerals and/or rock fragments (clasts). A breccia may also be distinguished by the origin of its clasts: (monomict breccia: monogenetic or monolithologic, and polymict breccia: polygenetic or polylithologic). The proportions of these fragments within the unbrecciated material exhibits a fragmental texture, which has been interpreted to be a characteristic of impact ejectaFractured and/or molten rocky debris thrown out of a crater during a meteorite impact event, or, alternatively, material, including ash, lapilli, and bombs, erupted from a volcano.. For more details on the formation of diogenites visit the Johnstown page. To see an alternative classification systemDefinable part of the universe that can be open, closed, or isolated. An open system exchanges both matter and energy with its surroundings. A closed system can only exchange energy with its surroundings; it has walls through which heat can pass. An isolated system cannot exchange energy or matter with for the diogenites and dunites based on mineralogical and petrographical features, proposed by Beck and McSween (2010) and modified by Wittke et al. (2011), click here.
The oxygenElement that makes up 20.95 vol. % of the Earth's atmosphere at ground level, 89 wt. % of seawater and 46.6 wt. % (94 vol. %) of Earth's crust. It appears to be the third most abundant element in the universe (after H and He), but has an abundance only isotopic composition for Dhofar 778 was determined by Greenwood et al. (2017), and the plot occupies a distinct space on an oxygen three-isotope diagram (see below). They suggest that this anomalous oxygen isotopeOne of two or more atoms with the same atomic number (Z), but different mass (A). For example, hydrogen has three isotopes: 1H, 2H (deuterium), and 3H (tritium). Different isotopes of a given element have different numbers of neutrons in the nucleus. composition may be attributed to contamination by an exogenous component, but note that further analysis should be conducted. Diagram credit: Greenwood et al., Chemie der Erde, vol. 77, p. 25 (2017) ‘Melting and differentiationA process by which a generally homogeneous chondritic body containing mostly metal, silicates and sulfides will melt and form distinct (differentiated) layers of different densities. When the melting process continues for a long enough period of time, the once chondritic body will re-partition into layers of different composition including of early-formed asteroids: The perspective from high precision oxygen isotope studies’ (open access: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.chemer.2016.09.005) The photo above shows a 0.88 g half slice of Dhofar 778, which exhibits profound shock-veining. Increased magnification reveals that fragmentation is present to a very fine scale. It is thought that the melt veins were formed and quenched within a few microseconds. The top photo below is a high resolution image of this diogeniteDiogenites belong to the evolved achondrite HED group that also includes howardites and eucrites. They are named after the Greek philosopher Diogenes of Apollonia, of the 5th century BCE, who was the first to suggest that meteorites come from outer space (a realization forgotten for over 2,000 years). They are, courtesy of Stephan Kambach. This is a highly polished section revealing a greenish color similar to that of Tatahouine. The bottom photo below shows the fusion-crusted side of the main massLargest fragment of a meteorite, typically at the time of recovery. Meteorites are commonly cut, sliced or sometimes broken thus reducing the size of the main mass and the resulting largest specimen is called the "largest known mass".. click on image for a magnified view
Photo courtesy of Stephan Kambach
Photos of the complete stone shown courtesy of Stephan Kambach